2023, Installations

Datarium is a series of generative animation/video installations. In this series, I imagine a digital world inhabited by digital creatures. Many portals, some of them appear to be screens and some of them look like everyday objects, bridge the gap between our reality and the digital domain. Each portal offers a unique glimpse into specific areas of the digital world, revealing diverse ecosystems teeming with digital life forms.

Datarium is the result of a series of extensive studies on diverse natural ecosystems, especially aquatic ones. It is a re-interpretation and re-imagination of the world we occupy, an exploration of alternative forms of organisms, and a question of the essence of life.

Click here to visit the project website.

Exhibited at RCA2023

流水落花Floating Petals

2023, Digital Writing

Visit this work online

This work is inspired by Yip Yuk Yiu’s work False Words. Yip Yuk Yiu was my professor at the School of Creative Media. In that work, he created a computer program to continuously reconstruct Liu Xiaobo’s famous quote, “I have no enemies(我沒有敵人)”. The program repeatedly prints the result on a screen, layer by layer. Slowly, the other characters became fully colored blocks, and only the character 人(human) stood out to be recognizable. But in the end, it is still gradually buried by the words that are constantly printed on top of it.

The act of writing over and over on top of the text produces huge tension. It symbolizes an extreme obsession but still gives the audience plenty of room to imagine where the obsession comes from—whether it’s because someone doesn’t want to forget, or because of some strong emotions. That’s why I love this way of presentation.

In this work, I made the computer program to continuously transcribe part of the poem by Polish poet Wisława Szymborska, Children of the Age. The famous Hong Kong indie band My Little Airport read part of this poem at their 2021 concert as a response to the new normal in Hong Kong after the social movement in 2019 and the epidemic in 2020. After countless repetitions, the machine became tired, and typos and mistakes gradually appeared in the written content. In the end, it seemed to lose its mind totally and began to write nonsense. In the process, the word “political” emerges from the repeated letters, showing the quantitative characteristic of the text, then gradually gets buried under the random tokens.

I named the work 流水落花 Floating Petals. 流水落花(floating petals on flowing water) is a Chinese saying, first written by Li Yu, in his verse “流水落花歸去也,天上人間(Petals floating on streams, returning to their end. The past and now is like the haven and the earth)”. If you are familiar with Hong Kong pop culture, you may also think of Wyman Wong’s lyrics and Sing-Fung Ka’s movies. 流水落花 resembles the opposite of obsession, which forms a strong contrast with the behavior of the computer program in the work. To be obsessed and then insane, or to let go and then forget, is the biggest problem in this post-XX era.


2023, Generative Animation

Plasmodata is a generated animation based on the study of slime mould.

Slime mould is an interesting life form. For most of their lifetime, they are free-living single-celled individual entities. However, those simple cells developed a very sophisticated system of communication using acrasins which is highly similar to the nervous system of animals. In a sense, the slime mould cells form a coordinated “brain” which appears in highly intricate structures.

Inspired by recent studies of how slime mould transmit information, I digitally simulated their behaviors. These simple virtual lives collaboratively generate convoluted and aesthetically pleasing visuals.

Plasmodata is a sandbox, a cosmos, a question of our definition of life and intelligence.

Exhibition view at WAAITT2023

Mechanic Synesthesia @ Tate Modern

2023, Installation

part of The Hive

Mechanic Synesthesia provides a special multi-sensory experience. The audience is invited to touch the sculptures made with different materials residing in the cells of The Hive. Sensors hidden inside the sculptures translate the touch into sounds and generative visuals representing fluidity and softness. The installation invites people to explore the different materiality of the sculptures through the three corresponding senses. As one of the audience said, “(it is) like I am hearing through my fingers and seeing through my ears.”

For Beyond Surface – Tactile Presence x Tate Modern Late March 2023

Digitalizing Akira Minagawa

2022 – ongoing, Digital animation

Akira Minagawa is famous for his insistence on using a hand-drawing process for his textile design.

I created algorithms to try to recreate similar textile textures from purely 0s and 1s, questioning the possibility of digital media and asking the following questions: Can we recreate everything digitally? If so, does it also means that the “real” world we are in can also be another kind of “digital”?

Visit the animations here

Auto Capital

Sonification of live stocks price and the air quality indexes in the cities where the stocks are traded.

Global market is one of the peak creations of capitalism. From New York to Tokyo, then Shanghai, Hong Kong and London. Trading never ends in a day. Many people see this never-stop flow of money, or more exactly, numbers, as the most successful symbol of the globalization of this century.

The AQI (Air Quality Index) data seems to be completely irrelevant to the stocks data. But there was a subtle relation in history, between instrualization, which makes the today global stock market possible, and the environmental issue. It has been well elaborated how developed regions should be responsible for the pollution they make in history, and how the whole global capital system is fueled by burning tons of unnecessary energy.

If you want to download the patch, click here.

Noise Machine

Software, based on Max8,

Infinite generated noise using only oscillators, from pure numbers.

If you want to download the patch, click here.


2021, Software

Visit The Work

Using Firefox or Chrome is recommended, for Safari version lower than 15.2, fatal bugs might occur.

Visit the NFT of This Work

E-Shredder is a webpage/piece of code, which shows you copies of the most recent sold NFTs, and gradually “destroy” them.
More interestingly, itself is an NFT too, so if you buy it, you can witness it destroying itself.

More details: here


2021, Installation

DiVision is a recent outcome of my research of generative art with non-digital elements. In the installation, a customized projection system with prisms, beam splitters, and mirrors is used to create colorful and multi-layer immersive visuals from a digital projector projecting single-channel black and white images.

It is called DiVison because, in the system, the light beams coming out from the digital projector would be divided and altered through the beam splitters and prisms. After setting up the system, I then composed the black and white computer-generated graphic with the concept of division.

A screenshot of the computer generated graphic

Visit the project page here